How To Calculate Fuel Flow Rate


Depending on your horsepower output, which is indicative of airflow and fuel consumption, and boost level, which is indicative of heat, we inject a percentage of your primary fuel flow rate. For practice use an air flow of 80 cubic feet per minute and it will equal 115. ) to NMEA 2000 ® Network Data. The Btu rate per hour of all boilers at maximum burning rate, plus other devices such as water heaters, are used to size air openings and their associated duct work. The pipe flow rate calculator (a. exe file, no external DLLs or data files required. Divide your fuel mass flow rate by the density of a gallon of meth (say 6. 05 E10 ergs. He also observed that as he increased the flow rate, the measured data started to behave erratically. However, gas burners are not 100-percent efficient. However, if you have an adjustable fuel pressure regulator, you can change the flow rating of a given injector to more closely match your engine's needs. You can calculate the flow rate in five simple steps: Select the shape of the cross-section of the channel. This section will calculate the air flow into the engine for a given set of conditions: a given rpm, boost pressure, VE, cid, etc… The air flow at this one point can be used to help size a comperssor, figure out the fuel needed, and more. m = mass flow rate (kg/s) Example - Flow Rate in a Heating System. A fuel pressure test is often performed incorrectly, or sometimes not performed at all. The Energy Library: Wärtsilä RT-flex96C. A wider pipe also produces a higher volumetric flow, and a shorter pipe lets a similar pressure drop provide a greater force. Factors that can affect fuel consumption include: It's estimated 8% more fuel can be used on a return intercity trip when air conditioning is used for most of the journey. Yes there is an optimum flow rate. ) Fuel flow senders facilitates fuel consumption optimization. Examine how the performance of real engines may be improved. Kind of! The heat pump manufacturer will post on the internet or in the users guide what the maximum and mimimum flow rate through his heat pump should be. The following formulas are based on turbulent flow of a Newtonian fluid through an outlet (orifice) in a tank. In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol Q (sometimes V̇). In theory Harley’s fuel injection system is still an open-loop system by design. If you know the liquid height you can also work out how much is needed to top it up to full. The Cv was designed for use with liquid flows, it expresses the flow in gallons per minute of 60º F water with a pressure drop across the valve of 1 psi. ng Abstract Natural gas is fast becoming a major primary source of fuel in Nigeria and is normally piped to the end users. P0 is the pressure at which the injector's rated flowrate R0 is measured. Average customer prior to purchase diesel generator fuel consumption with little to understand the situation, but most customers do not know the fuel consumption of the diesel generator set and the way how to how to calculate the size of the diesel generator set fuel consumption, the. The value will be returned in lbs/hr based on the improved fuel pressure. Now i know it is possible to somehow calculate fuel flow rate indirectly because another app namely "Torque" could calculate fuel flow rate on the same car under the very same conditions and gave something like 0. If the flow in the pipe is laminar, you can use the Poiseuille Equation to calculate the flow rate: Q = πD4ΔP 128μΔx. The fuel mass flow rate is related to the total engine air flow rate (mdot a) by the fuel to air ratio (f). Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption. Calculate fluid flow through the hole in the pipe with constant pressure if. Fuel efficiency sometimes means the same as thermal efficiency. ) Fuel Flow per hour (pounds or gallons) at 2,000 MSL. DFM is designed for fuel consumption measurement in fuel lines of vehicles and stationary machines, also for operating time monitoring in different working modes of engine. The "minimum pipe length" setting controls the minimum number of segments that a pipe will be permitted before the calculator uses multiple lanes of pipes. To calculate: For example, let's say you had 25 pieces defective in a shipment of 1,000 pieces. m = mass flow rate (kg/s) Example - Flow Rate in a Heating System. Yes there is an optimum flow rate. Restriction Orifice Plate (Liquids) Sizing Calculator Documentation Storage Tank Calculator Documentation Vertical Gas-Liquid Separator Calculator Documentation. 3 After 2 hours trip fuel "consumed" will be 2 x 27. *Injector flow rate must represent the flow rate at your base pressure. The determination of the air mass flow rate is the first stage in evaluating the solids loading ratio and providing a check on the value of the conveying-line inlet air velocity. Sensor comes as a 10-foot cables with a T-connector for easy integration into a NMEA 2000 network. The Fuel Value Calculator is a tool that can be used to compare typical unit costs of various fuels. Natural and propane gas have specific levels of energy contained within them. 5psi) please use the flow vs pressure calculator to calculate injector flow rate at base pressure. Big Stall Convertors, huge gears and very light cars are not part of the Calculation and a competent Carburetor Professional should be consulted. The discharge coefficient C d depends on the configuration of the outlet. Since the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the flow rate, use the following formula to calculate the pressure drop through the valve for any flow rate: PD In Feet = (Flow Rate/ Rated Cv. The fuel conversion efficiency is also the product between the combustion efficiency and the thermal conversion efficiency. Calculating the flow requirements of any fuel system is dependent on only two factors—the size of the engine the system supplies and the rpm range at which the engine is operating. GM states that balance rates should be no more than plus or minus 4 (+4/-4) in park at operating temperature. Expressed in = The specific heat of the respective flue gas component. When three of the four quantities pressure P, volume V, molar number n, and temperature T are known, the fourth quantity is calculated for an ideal gas. The Equation. This calculator may also be used to determine the appropriate pipe diameter required to achieve a desired velocity and flow rate. Provide details and share your research! But avoid … Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Includes 53 different calculations. Injector size calculation HOW TO size fuel injector flow rate. As the filtration rate declines over the course of the filter's run, knowing the what the flow rate would be per hour if the filtration rate had stayed the same isn't very useful. Mass flow rate equation. BSFC = Fuel flow (PPH) / HP. A liter is a measuring unit of volume in International System unit accepted metric unit. Using the coefficients will give relatively accurate results. 025 X 1,000,000 = 25,000 PPM. Hold the throttle steady at 3,000 rpm and adjust the "injector size" setting higher or lower until you reach the same air/fuel ratio that you wrote down in step 3 above. For the theory behind the calculator see the engine page. In this section we will perform further ideal cycle analysis to express the thrust and fuel efficiency of engines in terms of. However, fuel flow requirements can be easily established for all engines. Calculation of Pigging Effectiveness for Petroleum (product) Pipelines Mohd Sadaf* * Operations Deptt. Infant Growth Charts - Baby Percentiles Overtime Pay Rate Calculator Salary Hourly Pay Converter - Jobs Percent Off - Sale Discount Calculator Pay Raise Increase Calculator Linear Interpolation Calculator Dog Age Calculator Ideal Gas Law Calculator Inflation Rate Equations Calculator Horsepower Car Equations Calculator Orifice Flow Rate. This is because the engine uses much more fuel when accelerating. 3558 Joules; 1 Btu = 1054 Joules = 2. I'd like to calculate how many joules (J) are needed to launch a rocket to a height of $1,414213*10^7$ meters. Because of this it is important to look at a flow chart of whatever pump you decide to buy. Air mass flow rate is an independent variable and is an ideal substitute in this work as its value remains constant along the length of a pipeline whether single-bore or stepped. Fluid flow occurs with the motion of liquid and gaseous materials and pressure sensors play a critical role in determining many aspects of fluid flow. From this figure, you can calculate horsepower. However, how can we estimate the flow rate that is necessary? There are a number of methods that can be used to estimate or calculate required flow rate for fire control. 766 E-7 kWh = 3. This article describes this ratio and presents an easy way to calculate it when the composition of a fuel is known. (c) Pump systems. Available in two different height configurations and a wide range of flow rates, the injectors are correctly sized and feature the correct EV6/USCAR connector, enabling a hassle-free plug-in operation. Calculator Use. About calculating the mass flow rate Suppose we have a 1200 cc ,4 cylinder engine so each cylinder has approx volume of 300 cc. AIR/FUEL RATIO (AFR) and FUEL/AIR RATIO (FAR) AFR = F/A A – air mass-flow (A – air), kg/s F – fuel mass-flow (F – fuel), kg/s Form the practical reasons in aviation (aircrafts) mostly in use is the ratio of air mass-flow to the fuel mass-flow determined as AFR (Air/Fuel Ratio) In similar way FAR (Fuel/Air Ratio) is defined. Note: conversions are only valid under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. Once we have MAF integrated over time, we can calculate fuel flow using a specific air/fuel mixing ratio (A/F). Each pulse is approximately 2. Pool water flow rate is an important factor for determining turn over rate and ensuring the pool water is receiving adequate filtration. Note: when R0 is measured, P0 is actually the pressure difference across the injector; absolute pressure above injector = P0 + BARO; absolute pressure below injector = BARO; difference (above - below) = P0. Essentially, this is all the balance rate is measuring. Recently airlines have been slowing down their planes in an effort to ease fuel consumption. A simple-cycle gas turbine used for power generation has a thermal efficiency of about 34 percent. Use this fuel calculator to easily calculate the fuel consumption of a vehicle: car, bus, truck, etc. Sensor comes as a 10-foot cables with a T-connector for easy integration into a NMEA 2000 network. Click on the "Calculate" button to compute the flow rate. Calculator Use. However, I never got that far. Our burner with the 40,000 BTU per hour output divided by 1,075 equals 37. Fluids handled: crude oil, jet fuel, diesel, heating oil Typical process conditions: Flow rates up to 1000 m3/h (4400 usgpm) Pressures up to 10 bar (145 psi) Warren two-screw pumps Warren two-screw pumps Houttuin two-screw pumps. Look up the specific flow vs. , of the USDA Forest Service’s Southern Region, the fifth edition of the Calculator has been published in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, and the Pellet Fuels. Some typical values for discharge coefficient are shown at right. 07 m/s by 0. Choose the unit of the flow rate. Inputs: horsepower (HP) engine air flow rate - cubic feet per minute:. Here are a few statistics that underscore some of these alarming trends: Since 1970, the world's use of fuel has more than doubled. Gas Rate Calculator. Flow Calculation for Gases The coefficient of flow (Cv) is a formula which is used to determine a valve's flows under various conditions and to select the correct valve for a flow application. In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol Q (sometimes V̇). It's important to keep in mind that driving at cruising speed and other variables may decrease or increase fuel consumption. Enter the value to convert from into the input box on the left. For example, let us assume the instrument takes a measurement of the fuel flow rate every 30-seconds. The required capacitv of the nozzle is determined by the fuel flow rate w f = 0. 21 cubic feet of gas per hour. Check this out! OOIDA now has this calculator available to you for your Android or BlackBerry phone. Learn more about the units used on this page. Subscribe to the truck rate calculator today!. This formula is only as accurate as the input values used in the calculation. Injector HP/KW Rating Calculator. What is the flow rate of the water in liters per second (L/s)?Answer: The flow rate depends on the area of the circular pipe: A = πr 2. A flow meter is a test device used to measure the flow rate of process fluids and gases in industrial plants and facilities. I have a flow sheet for some fuel injectors that gives fuel quantity through the injector with a set pressure and activation time for 4 different points with different activation times and pressures. This fuel cell online calculator performs approximate calculations of PEM fuel cell stacks and comparative calculations for stacks based on stamped and joined metal bipolar plates (Metal-BIP) and on carbon-based bipolar plates (C-BIP), considering internal coolant flow fields for each BIP type. Calculate the head required for each boiler feed pump 4. In this section we will perform further ideal cycle analysis to express the thrust and fuel efficiency of engines in terms of. The SI unit for flow rate is m 3 /s, but a number of other units for Q are in common use. Step 5: Fine-Tune the Flow Until now, your best option would be to calculate your injector size then round up to the next highest available injector size for your application. Check this out! OOIDA now has this calculator available to you for your Android or BlackBerry phone. If that volume came into the pipe-- once again, we learned several videos ago that the definition of a liquid is a fluid that's incompressible. Please note that these results are intended to be used to estimate how much fuel a generator uses during operation and are not exact metrics due to various factors that can affect the amount of fuel consumed. If the bottom of the tank is sloped toward the drain an aver-age depth measurement should be used. 4 Kg divided by the time to give me an answer on Kg/sec ? Thanks,. 40L/p> $361 - $544. The specific fuel consumption ( SFC ) is the total fuel consumed per kilowatt power developed and it is given by [4] SFC = ( *+ ˘ˇ (7) ii) Torque Gain: Increase in compression ratio induces greater turning effect on the cylinder crank [6]. If you are using a 'wet' setup, you can calculate what the Fuel Jet size is by filling out the nitrous pressure and fuel pressure fields for a given Nitrous Jet. You must know these quantities to calculate. Use 'flow rate' in a Sentence. Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. Flow meter technologies such as differential pressure, magnetic, thermal, turbine, ultrasonic and vortex all. For example: An injector that flows 330 cc @ 40 psi will flow 369 cc @ 50 psi. Cincinnati Test Systems offers a free, multi-purpose leak rate calculator for system calibration and measurements. Fuel restriction of 4 Hg" ) In calculating restriction, Total fuel flow GPH, fuel Hose ID, feet of fuel hose, fittings, feet of lift or head of the fuel level, Type of Fuel filter must all be added in. Note that the mass m 0 includes the fuel mass, and the mass m can be considered to be the payload mass after a specified burn. 3 After 2 hours trip fuel "consumed" will be 2 x 27. establish the fuel flow to the engine based on an injector operating pulse time of 100% (wide open all the time). Density of typical test fluid = 760 - 770 kg/m 3 1 lb/hr = 9. Let the liquid flow into a weigh tank and measure the time taken. To get average depth of the tank take three measurements: at the shallow end, in the middle, and at the overflow. 0 and SSE 39. " The result is the equivalent amount in gallons, no more guessing or trying to remember how to convert between cubic feet and gallons. Civil Engineering index. You must know these quantities to calculate. AIR/FUEL RATIO (AFR) and FUEL/AIR RATIO (FAR) AFR = F/A A – air mass-flow (A – air), kg/s F – fuel mass-flow (F – fuel), kg/s Form the practical reasons in aviation (aircrafts) mostly in use is the ratio of air mass-flow to the fuel mass-flow determined as AFR (Air/Fuel Ratio) In similar way FAR (Fuel/Air Ratio) is defined. Includes 53 different calculations. Yes there is an optimum flow rate. Your boat’s fuel consumption is not nearly as easy to figure out compared to your car or truck. Sizing parameters are show in Table 1. A higher pressure drop acting on a pipe creates a higher flow rate. A mass air flow sensor is an important component in engines which utilize fuel injection instead of carburettors. Flow meter users who know what flow rate they need to measure can use this calculator to determine if a flow meter is capable of measuring that flow rate based on the manufacturer's published velocity measurement specifications. For example, if a company is seven months into its operating year and has spent $850,000 to date, the burn rate is approximately $120,000 per month. uk to aid you in configuring your vehicle to get the most out of it. This page contains gas rate calculators used for working out gas consumption of appliances and to make sure they are within manufacturers and gas safety tolerances. When designing an engine for a particular fuel, it's important to know how much air is needed to completely burn a certain amount of fuel. Air mass flow rate can be evaluated from the ideal gas law and this was presented Eqn. With knowledge of a boat's fuel economy-how much fuel the boat burns. The fuel mass flow rate was calculated by dividing the air mass flow rate by the target air/fuel ratio. To give the mass release rate in mg/s the flue gas flow rate (m3/s) is multiplied by the concentration (mg/m3) of pollutant, e. The relationship of pressure drop, flow rate and flow resistance is described as Q 2 = ∆P/R. The Cv was designed for use with liquid flows, it expresses the flow in gallons per minute of 60º F water with a pressure drop across the valve of 1 psi. Injector size calculation HOW TO size fuel injector flow rate. (some Engines have a Max. This is because the engine uses much more fuel when accelerating. When three of the four quantities pressure P, volume V, molar number n, and temperature T are known, the fourth quantity is calculated for an ideal gas. , IOCL (pipelines), Mughalsarai Abstract- Pigging is a process of pushing a device (PIG) equipped with metal wire brushes to clean the deposits on the inner walls of the pipeline. The result is a far more accurate estimation, which allows you to pick the right injector the first time. Engine Design Calculator Automobile - Car. It is important to calculate this accurately in order to determine the correct sizing and scale of pumping equipment for your needs. Variations such as Natural Aspirated, Turbo or supercharged, or specific type of gasoline, can be used. For example, a rectangular tank,. For example: An injector that flows 330 cc @ 40 psi will flow 369 cc @ 50 psi. The re-boost will change the orbit of the ISS from 300 kilometer to a 340 kilometer orbit. AIR/FUEL RATIO (AFR) and FUEL/AIR RATIO (FAR) AFR = F/A A – air mass-flow (A – air), kg/s F – fuel mass-flow (F – fuel), kg/s Form the practical reasons in aviation (aircrafts) mostly in use is the ratio of air mass-flow to the fuel mass-flow determined as AFR (Air/Fuel Ratio) In similar way FAR (Fuel/Air Ratio) is defined. However, the time-varying. The BASE* fuel pressure you will run (your fuel pressure at idle), *our calculator assumes a 1:1 rising rate fuel pressure regulator for turbo applications Injector flow size - make sure you select cc/min or lb/hr in the drop down, (The amount of fuel you can supply your engine directly affects the amount of power that engine is capable of. Can you help me translate, program, or host these calculators? [Hide this request] Check out our spreadsheet version of this calculator: Download Spreadsheet Open Google Sheets version View All Spreadsheets. This compression raises the temperature to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture which is formed by injecting fuel once the air is compressed. Let us explain. I tried to contact the torque application developer but was unlucky. Likewise if the balance rate for cylinder 2 is +3 then the fuel rate for cylinder 2 is 9+3= 12 mm3/sec. If mass (kilogram or slug) is used as the unit of propellant, then specific impulse has units of velocity. Similar to Ohm's law, the pressure drop is assumed to be proportional to the flow rates. Once your pump is working, you can measure the volumetric flow rate: the volume of water transported per unit of time. A higher pressure drop acting on a pipe creates a higher flow rate. If you use 7 GPM in the calculator, it will give bogus (lean) information. Filter System Flow Rates Metric All filter media has optimum flow rates where that media will perform the best, and provide best filtration performance. discharge rate) given its diameter (for a round pipe, height & width for a rectangular one) and the velocity of the liquid or gas flowing through it. the intake air mass flow rate (which depends on engine speed) Usually, engines are designed to have the maximum volumetric efficiency at medium/high engine speed and load. Our calculator cannot take that into consideration, so take what it tells you as a guide or "rule of thumb". This was developed into an expression in terms of the conveying-line inlet air velocity with Eqn. The first step is to calculate the stack's volumetric gas flow rate (V) using the formula below: V(m 3 /min) = (gas velocity, m/s) * [π * (internal stack diameter, m) 2 /4] * 60 s/min. When it comes to replacing fuel injectors, step one is shopping at Summit Racing! We’ve got all the top brands—DeatschWerks, VENOM, ACDelco, Bosch, Delphi, FAST, and many others. For example: An injector that flows 330 cc @ 40 psi will flow 369 cc @ 50 psi. (The default calculation involves air passing through a medium-sized venturi, with answers rounded to 3 significant figures. Different manufacturer's nozzles and jets flow differently. The Hazen Williams Coefficient – C – to Calculate Water Flow Rate for Pipe Sizes. The simplest way to calculate a light duty (LD) car or truck's fuel economy is to acquire fuel consumption from the Injector Flow Rate. Fuel tax calculation worksheet. The IFR table represents the ACTUAL change in injector flow rate as intake manifold pressure changes. During tuning and installation, the calculators can provide data to help you optimize your results. Install your aftermarket fuel injectors. Our tank size calculation tool is free and easy to use. How air-fuel ratio can be diagnosed and monitored with the help of air. 2 em has the fuel injectors mounted in the center of the cylinder head. Note: when R0 is measured, P0 is actually the pressure difference across the injector; absolute pressure above injector = P0 + BARO; absolute pressure below injector = BARO; difference (above - below) = P0. Engine Design Calculator Automobile - Car. Take the 9000-33c-2 Floscan Fuel Flow Meter for example. Let’s further explain these terms. Flow rate x time = volume, so time = Volume/Flow rate. This is very suitable for situations such as domestic piping and hosing, sprinkler and irrigation systems, etc. The fill rate is not one metric but many. (Motorcraft rates their injectors at 39. Fill in the 2 values that you do know. Calculating fuel economy and usage Fuel economy describes how much fuel your vehicle uses in relation to the distance travelled. The mass flow rates of reactant gases play a pivotal role in the reliable and efficient operation of FCS. f = [(Tt4 / Tt3) - 1] / [(nb * Q) / (cp * Tt3) - Tt4 / Tt3] mdot f = f * mdot a The engine air flow rate is normally set by conditions in the nozzle. Set your injector size setting in your tuning software to the new injectors' published flow rate/size. Do this by multiplying each cash flow by (1+ reinvestment rate) 2 calculate NPV by multiplying the FVs we just found by (1+ req. Airflow To calculate the fuel consumption of vehicles, the intake airflow value is needed: the intake airflow sensors are usually found in diesel vehicles and in some spark ignition vehicles. The following is a guideline equation for approximating fuel flow per injector based on estimates on engine Horsepower (HP) and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). Cash flow is the lifeblood of every business. The Hazen-Williams formula is an empirical rule, that holds well for cold water running in pipes under turbulent flow conditions. Choose the pump which satisfies the required conditions 7. Injector Repair LLC is dedicated to providing the highest quality professional ultrasonic fuel injector cleaning and flow testing service for most automotive, truck, marine, motorcycle, ATV, and snowmobile gasoline fuel injectors. Therefore, some reports will state fuel burn rates based upon the hour of flight. Most injectors are flow rated at 43. So how do you calculate burn rate? In this context, burn rate is a representation of a company’s monthly operating costs. As the liquid flow rate is increased, an injection pressure is eventually reached at which the pressurizing valve opens and admits liquid to the outer, secondary nozzle. 50 lbs of fuel per hour. The LT1 injectors from 24lbs at 43. Do not confused Fuel Consumption (FC) with Fuel Economy/Efficiency (FE), they are closely related but they are not exactly the same thing. Professional Fuel Injector Pulsewidth Calculator This calculator will generate pulsewidth values for specific rpms, from idle to peak speeds. Flow Rate Q = flow rate in ft 3 / second or cubic feet per second or if we are using S. For both cars the engine is turning at 5000 rpm. As fuel pressure increases, fuel flow decreases. On 12 volts, this produces about 1. Being a professional pilot means two words: Safety First. The following formula is used to calculate fuel consumption in litres / 100kms, the most commonly used measure of fuel consumption. For example, if you drove 335 miles before refueling, and you filled your car up with 12 gallons of gas, your fuel consumption was 27. Only difference woudl be the pipe diameter. Now, to calculate pressure in front of boiler, you must know flow rate and internal pipe diameter. For example, if your company has a burn rate of $650,000, your company would be spending $650,000 a month. Features included are low fuel, fuel used, trip fuel used, and season fuel used. kJ/kg Air or gas exhausted from a high temperature process is passed through a Air Flow Rate Calculation (Flue Exhaust Gases). Calculate the Mean Effective Pressure of an engine. Transcript: A restriction to the fuel supply reduces the flow of fuel to the engine. The formula for calculating fuel consumption used in this online fuel consumption calculator is: The result depends on the metrics used as input: miles per gallon if the. Coriolis flow meters are extremely important in a multitude of flow-measurement applications. To calculate: For example, let's say you had 25 pieces defective in a shipment of 1,000 pieces. Note: Calculation is based on fuel pressure of 43. The mass flow rates of reactant gases play a pivotal role in the reliable and efficient operation of FCS. NOTAM: Be sure that you load this figure in the gallons box, not the percent box. Once you have defined what conversions you want to track, you can calculate the conversion rate. went to a 26 and was going to run the 22 on the fuel and keep the fuel preas. As for air resistance, I'd like to calculate that as well, but I think I'll manage on my own. This is a requirement for many environmental regulations. The constants used are 160 CFM per 100 HP, and an 85% duty cycle for maximum injector pulsewidth. For example, if you drove 335 miles before refueling, and you filled your car up with 12 gallons of gas, your fuel consumption was 27. Once a meter is in place, observe the flow of fuel through the meter over the course of an hour when the conditions are right. This principle not only applies to cars, but other vehicles as well. B) The Friction Losses of all the pipe and components the liquid encounters on the discharge of the pump. 17 to calculate minimum pump size in "free flow" GPH. Calculator Instructions. For example: An injector that flows 330 cc @ 40 psi will flow 369 cc @ 50 psi. This is the fluid flow rate. I thought so, but then head (reverse pressure) comes into it as well. Install two or more meters in parallel if the flow rate is too great for one Meter. Of the other three, two (pressure, and temperature) can be specified by the reactor design and. Install your aftermarket fuel injectors. A flow battery can be thought of as a type of rechargeable fuel cell. of natural gas is burned per hour and each contains 1100 Btu, what is the rate of combustion?. The first step is to calculate the stack's volumetric gas flow rate (V) using the formula below: V(m 3 /min) = (gas velocity, m/s) * [π * (internal stack diameter, m) 2 /4] * 60 s/min. The formula to find the new FUEL FLOW rate after a fuel pressure change: Example 1: A 240 CC injector tested at 43. Mass Air Flow Sensor Replacement. Fuel consumption rates, along with carbon emissions, are off the chart. Catch Cans & Tanks. The truck will use 123 gallons of diesel for the 680-mile trip, and $3 is the cost per gallon of diesel (123 x 3 = 369). The amount of power being supplied to the pump and the desired pressure of the fuel system. Fuel Pump Calculator. Water Mass Flow Rate in SI-units. If you know the air flow you can calculate the horsepower and vice versa. measure your pressure at the regulator. Sensors around the vehicle calculate the engine speed, fuel flow rate, throttle position and manifold pressure. Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Steam Pressure and the selected second parameter (Temperature, Specific Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, or Quality). General Conversions. 2 Pump Efficiency, for hydraulic power pack pumps this is in the range 0. injector flow rate = horsepower × BSFC num cylinders × duty cycle. Essentially, this is all the balance rate is measuring. Fluids handled: crude oil, jet fuel, diesel, heating oil Typical process conditions: Flow rates up to 1000 m3/h (4400 usgpm) Pressures up to 10 bar (145 psi) Warren two-screw pumps Warren two-screw pumps Houttuin two-screw pumps. EFI Advanced Part 3 takes a look at the concept of brake specific air consumption, brake specific fuel consumption, and fuel flow rate. 2 ms, considerably shorter than the time required for the stroke. • To load fuel, choose Aircraft, Aircraft Settings, Fuel to bring up the fuel loading window…enter amount of 2,603 gallons in the appropriate boxes. 0 cc/min 1 cc/min = 0. Fuel Injector Calculator is probably the most detailed Fuel Injector sizing software available. FUEL AND HYDROCARBON VAPORIZATION ABSTRACT A new semi-empirical expression has been developed which predicts the evaporation rates of pure liquid hydrocarbons under a wide range of conditions. This flow rate is the maximum output of the injector at a given pressure. Different manufacturer's nozzles and jets flow differently. This vehicle has an intermittent misfire that we are trying to locate. 0750 12 720 1,307 10. Feed flow rates of hydrogen and water are also critical parameters to manage water in the fuel cell itself and fuel cell system. The final factor controlling a pipe's viscosity is the. Most injectors are flow rated at 43. Note this rate in gallons per minute. Did you find us useful? Please consider supporting the site with a small donation. The maximum rate maintains margin over the LP port maximum available core air flow. The pipe flow calculation can compute flow rate, velocity, pipe diameter, elevation difference, pressure difference, pipe length, minor loss coefficient, and pump head (total dynamic head). Be aware of the fact that raising fuel pressure too high can have an adverse affect on the performance of the fuel injector. For decades the Colebrook-White correlation (see Colebrook (1939)) has been widely accepted more or less as an industry standard in calculating the friction factor (f) based on roughness (µ, often denoted hydraulic roughness), Reynolds number (Re, turbulence intensity) and inner diameter (D. This mass flow rate calculator helps you determine the mass flow rate of a material or the other three components of the equation, density velocity or flow area. As free flow, or even flow at a given pressure is only part of. When the gas reaches the speed of sound in the pipeline from the tank to the compressor, then it will reach "choked flow". The graph shows the pump's maximum possible flow rate is at free-flow (160 GPH), yet we know the maximum flow rate while under actual operation is going to be much less. Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912) experimentally investigated the relationship between the pressure drop and flow rate in a pipe. , 1,000 gallons per minute) by the dilution factor (from Step 4). 24 L/hr / 60 min/hr = 0. I think that using Bernoulli's formula is a bit over the top for this particular installation since there is probably less than 2m of static head available with a full day tank and maybe 1 metre as the tank nears low level, and assuming for the sake of it the flow rate of fuel is 1 litre/sec,the friction loss might be a couple of mm. and prevailing fuel prices and rates for each year. Warranty Policy. This gives the flow rate in liters per second or gallons per second. Different types of fuel make different amounts of power. Essentially, this is all the balance rate is measuring. 22 and this is reproduced. The Specific Enthalpy is then multiplied by the Mass Flow to get the Energy Flow: The feedwater flow rate can be calculated from steam mass flow and blowdown rate:. Let the liquid flow into a weigh tank and measure the time taken. The constants used are 160 CFM per 100 HP, and an 85% duty cycle for maximum injector pulsewidth. For years, the standard injector sizing formula took horsepower, number of injectors, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, and injector duty cycle to determine the best injector flow rate. Engine Design Calculator Automobile - Car. This is different from the efficiency number produced on the analyzer, which is reflective of the total amount of heat available from the fuel minus the losses from the gasses going up the stack. Mass Flow Rate = p×v×a. 33 with 22 jets on both and 6lbs fuel. We specialise in measuring the flow of a liquid in a pipe by using clamp on /strap on sensors. The two main considerations are the number of electrode plates and the actual active surface area. From the fuel to air ratio, we can obtain the fuel mass flow rate by a simple multiplication. Bookmark Fuel Consumption Converter - you will probably need it in the future. Offering a wide breadth of line sizes, flow measurement accuracy and turndown, these meters support many industries and can measure flow rates from a few grams/hour up to 120,000 lbs/minute. Just so everyone understands. The number of pipes will be omitted if only one pipe is required. m = mass flow rate (kg/s) Example - Flow Rate in a Heating System. 39 Liters per hour (L/h) in flow rate Converting kilogram (petrol) per hour to Liters per hour value in the flow rate units scale. Amount: 1 kilogram (petrol) per hour (kg/hr) of flow rate Equals: 1. When you have finished entering data, click on the active text above for the quantity you wish to calculate. For example, to calculate the individual injector size for a 650 HP V8 using eight injectors and assuming a BSFC of 0. fuel system injector size per horsepower engine air flow rate - cubic feet per minute: CID = engine displacement. Do not confused Fuel Consumption (FC) with Fuel Economy/Efficiency (FE), they are closely related but they are not exactly the same thing. ONLY) – a working on-screen demo of how easy our calculator is to use. Check results against our flow charts to verify calculations were done correctly. You need real flow tag information. Typically, burn rate is expressed in terms of cash spent each month. The Fuel Value Calculator is a tool that can be used to compare typical unit costs of various fuels. Every flow meter installation should provide allowance for the expansion of the pipe work. 2 kJ/kg o C) dt) = h / (4. By changing your fuel pressure, you can change the flow rates of your injectors. Online calculator to quickly determine Water Flow Rate through an Orifice. The small amounts of energy converted into heat within viscous boundary layers tend to lower the actual velocity of real fluids somewhat. Factory LT1 is 24lbs/hr. 0800 m) 2 A = π(0. A rough estimate for fuel flow can be found from the numbers for max range, cruising speed and fuel capacity. The leak rate calculation has built-in specific gravity values for water, seawater, diesel fuel, SAE 30 oil, and gasoline. Predict fuel flow rate of airplanes. This calculated flow rate may be conservatively taken as the required capacity of a thermal relief valve as it is the thermal expansion rate at maximum expected heat transfer into the trapped fluid. m – mass flow rate [kg/s] ρ – density [kg/m 3]. Formulae that will enable you to determine what flow rate you can get for a given Cv value or what. Fuel efficiency sometimes means the same as thermal efficiency. The measured engine fuel flow rate is 0. The formula is F = V/T, where F is the flow rate, V is the volume and T is the time. Manning Formula Uniform Pipe Flow at Given Slope and Depth. This tells you how many miles you drove per gallon of gas. Knowing the fuel consumption (Btu/hour-HHV) and the Percent Excess Air that is needed to support the combustion process an engineer can then calculate the Mass flow (lbs/hr) of combustion gases that are formed. 6 Performance of Jet Engines. One assumes that periodically the instrument obtains the fuel flow rate. Let’s face facts: just about anyone who’s run a boat for years on end has either run the fuel tanks dry, or come close enough that they’ve stressed over reaching the dock. 6 = 30 Kg Reserve which is 30% of trip fuel will be 30 x 0. The inputs are, in order of appearance: The number of cylinders in your engine, The BASE* fuel pressure you will run (your fuel pressure at idle), *our calculator assumes a 1:1 rising rate fuel pressure regulator for turbo applications. The total mass of air which flows through the engine (as measured by the MAF sensor or calculated using MAP, RPM and IAT) is divided by the A/F ratio (e. Airflow To calculate the fuel consumption of vehicles, the intake airflow value is needed: the intake airflow sensors are usually found in diesel vehicles and in some spark ignition vehicles. To convert, use this formula: lb/hr = cc/min ÷ 10. The windows version provides reports and can save settings to reuse locations with similar gas compositions. (The default calculation involves air passing through a medium-sized venturi, with answers rounded to 3 significant figures. Connect the VCC and GND of the flow meter to the Arduino's VCC and GND. Because it is simple to know mpg we have to calculate fuel flow. Warranty Policy. The inflation rate for a particular item in the basket may vary drastically from the overall inflation rate due to supply and demand conditions for that individual good. Air Temp : Degree F. Examples: An SVO 42 lb/hr injector is rated to flow 42 lb/hr at fuel pressure 43. The actual intake air volume can be calculated function of air mass m a [kg] and air density ρ a [kg/m 3 ] :. Time for an example. It is defined as a cubic decimeter. FUEL AND HYDROCARBON VAPORIZATION ABSTRACT A new semi-empirical expression has been developed which predicts the evaporation rates of pure liquid hydrocarbons under a wide range of conditions. As the filtration rate declines over the course of the filter's run, knowing the what the flow rate would be per hour if the filtration rate had stayed the same isn't very useful. 17 to calculate minimum pump size in "free flow" GPH. NOTAM: Be sure that you load this figure in the gallons box, not the percent box. Calculates only the quarter indicated (the one that is due at this time. Density of typical test fluid = 760 - 770 kg/m 3 1 lb/hr = 9. The pipe leak rate calculator computes the leak rate of a liquid out of a circular or non-circular crack or hole in a pipe or tank. The value will be returned in lbs/hr based on the improved fuel pressure. The previous examples illustrate how fuel pressure, flow, and jet size relate. 0764 lbm/scf, so the 1st one. 9755, and multiply by 850 to get 829. The required capacitv of the nozzle is determined by the fuel flow rate w f = 0. Online calculator to quickly determine Air Flow Rate through an Orifice. If mass (kilogram or slug) is used as the unit of propellant, then specific impulse has units of velocity. Flow Rate [mass] Mass based flow rate. Similar to Ohm's law, the pressure drop is assumed to be proportional to the flow rates. *Injector flow rate must represent the flow rate at your base pressure. The fill rate is not one metric but many. It's important to keep in mind that driving at cruising speed and other variables may decrease or increase fuel consumption. Pound per hour (lb/h - Per hour), mass flow rate Type the number of Pound per hour (lb/h) you want to convert in the text box, to see the results in the table. Fuel & Oil System. 17 gallons per. The final factor controlling a pipe's viscosity is the. The Cv was designed for use with liquid flows, it expresses the flow in gallons per minute of 60º F water with a pressure drop across the valve of 1 psi. The flow rate calculator can also calculate the mass flow rate of liquids given the liquid density is known. AGA 7 Calculator is used to calculate the gas flow through a Turbine Meter. Start a stop watch at the same time. Though there are some electronic devices to calculate mass flow rate this method depicts a way of manual calculation which can be handy. 5-gallon tank rated at 50% for 11 hours and burns a little over ¾ of a gallon per hour. A simple-cycle gas turbine used for power generation has a thermal efficiency of about 34 percent. Originally developed by A. Fuel Flow = Trip Fuel / Flight Time = 84. Hose & Fittings. Catch Cans & Tanks. Multiply that number by. 52 E-1 calories = 0. If you are working with monthly statistics, the multiple can be in the range of 12-36. 17 gallons per. Once your pump is working, you can measure the volumetric flow rate: the volume of water transported per unit of time. Step 1 - Enter the Tank Diameter. This tool can be used for pressure/volume conversions, pressure decay and helium accumulation leak rate calculations, flow rate conversions, and gas recovery/flow capacity measurements. 8%,with O2 essentially zero. This may seem low to you if you've read that the stock market averages much higher returns over the course of decades. The specific fuel consumption ( SFC ) is the total fuel consumed per kilowatt power developed and it is given by [4] SFC = ( *+ ˘ˇ (7) ii) Torque Gain: Increase in compression ratio induces greater turning effect on the cylinder crank [6]. If a company records monthly operating cash outflows of $100,000 and has a current cash balance of $1 million, this indicates that the company will run out of cash in ten months. This calculator allows you to choose between either of those two calculations. 07 gal of diesel fuel to mass flow rates? Thanks. Solving For Fuel System Flow Injector Size. Flow Of Liquids Through Nozzles. Look up the specific flow vs. This page is a technical resource page that will provide an explanation of the statistical term "standard deviation", and why standard deviation analysis of injector flow rates are. Expressed in = Mass of the respective flue gas component. To calculate the flow rate at a given pressure, use this. CNG Car Savings Calculator. Sets actual fuel levels in your aircraft via FSUIPC. The mass flow rate of a system is a measure of the mass of fluid passing a point in the ( ˙ m) system per unit time. water image by Gina Smith. Q, = heat input rate, lo6 Btu/hr. These changes can be used to measure the flowrate of the fluid. 11(e)(1) during the combustion of gaseous fuel, for a unit that uses a flow monitor and a diluent gas monitor to measure heat input, and that qualifies to use a default SO 2 emission rate under section 2. During cruise, the tolerance is less than 1. Note this isn’t a precision sensor, and the pulse rate does vary a bit depending on the flow rate, fluid pressure and sensor orientation. If excess air is given, flue gas composition and molar flow rates* can be estimated. Injector Size (Flow Rate) Selection. Fuel costs = Fuel consumption x fuel cost = 2 gals per hour X $2. The larger the flow rate, the more horsepower they are able to support. Calculate hourly fuel flow to load or GHR ratios: 2. Since the amount of fuel is relatively small (ratio 1:14. This video will give you tips and tools you can use to accurately check fuel pressure. Some typical values for discharge coefficient are shown at right. We can use the value of fuel to air ratio to determine the engine's specific fuel consumption. Larger fuel injectors are only required when you have exceeded the horsepower capacity of the existing fuel injectors. CO2 is an odorless, invisible, and non-flammable gas. Using the coefficients will give relatively accurate results. Analysis results of emission measurement data for aircraft engine concluded that method, which takes into account the influence of the real operational (fuel flow rate, operation period of engine/age and its maintenance) and ambient temperature on emission indices allow to get more precisely results of emission inventory of aircraft engines. Mass flow of water can be expressed as: m = h / ((4. Pressure Point 11: Calculating Flow Rate from Pressure Measurements. 0% overall. Injector Flow VS Fuel Pressure Calculator. Be aware of the fact that raising fuel pressure too high can have an adverse affect on the performance of the fuel injector. When the gas reaches the speed of sound in the pipeline from the tank to the compressor, then it will reach "choked flow". Step 6: Calculate the injection time. Here are a few statistics that underscore some of these alarming trends: Since 1970, the world's use of fuel has more than doubled. The dynamic flow rate is the flow through an injector while it is pulsed on and off for a given number of pulses. This ignores combustion chemistry, which you can somewhat do since O2 is generally going to CO2 and N2 is going straight through. CNG Car Savings Calculator. General Conversions. The owner or operator shall use Equation F-23 to calculate hourly SO 2 mass emissions in accordance with § 75. q volume flow rate ṁ. Using that drill area, multiply that drill area by 1. Stack Gas Flow Profile. 28 x 24 = 1. Look at the pressure ratings of those pumps at the desired fuel pressure range you will be running in ( remember it changes based on the fuel pressure regulator) 4. Inputs: horsepower (HP) engine air flow rate - cubic feet per minute:. Another way we measure this is on an engine dyno we calculate Brake Specific Fuel Consumption BSFC. Injector size calculation HOW TO size fuel injector flow rate. Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Steam Pressure and the selected second parameter (Temperature, Specific Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, or Quality). mk5cortinaestate. For these reasons, we generally recommended selecting an injector with a flow rate sufficiently high that it will not be required to exceed an 85% duty cycle. Everything from gram/second to ton/day. Chemical Energy of Fuel = Total Fuel Used (scf/hr) x Higher Heating Value (HHV)(BTU/scf) The power generated is simply the gross or net generation in kW. a) Definition Fuel Consumption (FC) is the measurement of fuel usage of a car over the distance covered by that car or in short; The amount of fuel used per distance. On-Line Liquid Friction Loss for any Pipe Size Enter Conditions Below:. 39 Liters per hour (L/h) in flow rate Converting kilogram (petrol) per hour to Liters per hour value in the flow rate units scale. To find out the rate of oil consumption in the engine of your car, you need to employ the calculation formula and calculator, or use this online form. The Specific Enthalpy is then multiplied by the Mass Flow to get the Energy Flow: The feedwater flow rate can be calculated from steam mass flow and blowdown rate:. • Diameter • Velocity • Flow rate 2. How to Measure your Water Flow Rate Q from an Open Pipe: There are times when it’s necessary to estimate the flow rate from a stream constrained to flow in a water jet flowing from an open pipe. I have a flow sheet for some fuel injectors that gives fuel quantity through the injector with a set pressure and activation time for 4 different points with different activation times and pressures. 7), compared with the amount of air, we can neglect the fuel mass for volumetric efficiency calculation. Flow Rate [volume] Volume based flow rate. We have already shown (see Equations 1 and 2 in Thermal Efficiency) how to calculate the fuel flow required for a given amount of power produced. Adding a high accuracy fuel flow meter onto your boat is a much easier installation then most people would assume, and it gives you some important advantages. Engine Testing and Instrumentation 2 Efficiencies When the engine converts fuel into power, the process is rather inefficient and fuel mass flow rate Q heating value of fuel m mass of fuel per cycle P power output W work per cycle Q P m Q W HV HV t s f f HV f s c f HV s. Boost Required for "X" Horsepower Calculator Horsepower is related to airflow and airflow is limited by the pumping capacity of a given engine displacement. Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption. /// Evaporation Rate Calculator /// Concrete Temperature and Ambient Condition English / Metric. These graphs depict the characteristics of various fuel injectors with effective pulse width in milliseconds (with 19 ms being equivalent to 100-percent injector duty cycle) and injector flow rate in cc/min. Expressed in = The specific heat of the respective flue gas component. A CI engine with bore B = 8. Engine speed sensor - Monitors engine speed, which is one of the factors used to calculate the pulse width There are two main types of control for multi-port systems: The fuel injectors can all open at the same time, or each one can open just before the intake valve for its cylinder opens (this is called sequential multi-port fuel injection ). The concept was to continually put a larger fan on the front of a turbojet engine and observe the performance. Silicone & Vacuum Hose. If you know the burner efficiency, you can calculate the exact fuel consumption per the output of the. It would be possible to calculate fuel consumption from RPM readings with a static engine, with a given and constant load and an accurate flowmeter, but this would have no relevance to real-world. 2 By multiplying the adjusted fuel flow and the calculated NOX emission factor, the hourly NOX emission can be determined (below). ) Maximum injector duty cycle (IDC) (In order to be conservative, Fuel Injector Clinic recommends a maximum duty cycle of 90%. These values are used to calculate total heat content of flue gases. The rates of secondary production, as we will see in a coming lecture, are very much lower than the rates of primary production. Measuring Fuel Use. Fuel & Oil System. It is this flow rate that is commonly used to describe and classify injectors (i. Convert among units of power and heat flow. Volumetric flow rates can be measured directly using flow meters. The flow rate is given by. Equations displayed for easy reference. What I did was get a fuel pump for a Chevy Station Wagon that was fully loaded, thanks to a NAPA clerk who recommended it for my 383 stroker mtr. 1,000 kW boiler operating at 90% efficiency gives burner firing rate of 1,099 kW. The boiler pressure is 100 psi and the boiler water temperature is 338°F. as is of the order of 500 to 1000 m s- for typical temperatures in internal combustion. If you have nothing to report at label 7D, enter '0'. [email protected] However, gas burners are not 100-percent efficient. Calculation of Pigging Effectiveness for Petroleum (product) Pipelines Mohd Sadaf* * Operations Deptt. We specialise in measuring the flow of a liquid in a pipe by using clamp on /strap on sensors. 025 X 1,000,000 = 25,000 PPM. discharge rate calculator) accepts input in both metric and imperial units: m/s, km/h, ft/s, yd/s, mph, and outputs in both metric units and imperial ones: cu ft, cu. Using the Steam Property Calculator, properties are determined using Steam Pressure and the selected second parameter (Temperature, Specific Enthalpy, Specific Entropy, or Quality). Calculate the beta ratio, Reynolds number, Discharge coefficient, Mass and Volumetric flow rate of a Newtonian fluid through an ISA 1932, Long Radius, or Venturi Nozzle. 7854 m^2 gives 5. Here we will be focusing on the injectors, making sure they do not have any flow problems (restrictions or leaks) An external timer tool will be used to fire the injectors at exact intervals while watching fuel pressure drops on a pressure gauge. The carburetor feed or fuel nozzle is located in the path of highest air velocity and lowest pressure (the ven­turi booster in each individual bar­rel). This calculator allows you to choose between either of those two calculations. Ultrasonic flow meters are non-intrusive devices that use acoustic vibrations to measure the flow rate of liquid. Single Line Calculator; Calculate Engine Size in Cubic Inches and CC's also Bore/Stroke Ratio and Rod/Stroke Ratio; Calculate Engine's Compression Ratio (CR) or Total Volume Or Combustion Chamber Volume; Calculate Change in Fuel Injector Flow from change in Fuel Pressure; Calculate Size of Carburetor Needed in CFM;. The mass flow rate of a system is a measure of the mass of fluid passing a point in the ( ˙ m) system per unit time. Quickly and easily convert cubic feet into gallons with the press of a button. This is a relatively simple install on a single-engine, gasoline-powered boat, but more-complex systems for multiple engines and/or diesels are also available. Flow Calculation for Gases The coefficient of flow (Cv) is a formula which is used to determine a valve's flows under various conditions and to select the correct valve for a flow application. However, how can we estimate the flow rate that is necessary? There are a number of methods that can be used to estimate or calculate required flow rate for fire control. Just so everyone understands. Calculate the exact flow rate by correcting the data to actual pressure loss. Based on the pressure and the injector size, this results in a flow rate of 20 lbs/hr. Be sure to check the current NOAA aviation weather for departure, along the flight plan and at the destination airport before departure. Use this calculator to determine the flow rate of any nozzle at any operating pressure. Note: conversions are only valid under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. For example: An injector that flows 330 cc @ 40 psi will flow 369 cc @ 50 psi. EIA cannot tell you how to calculate a fuel surcharge. Lift: Submersible pumps do not build pressure. The rate of fuel consumption currently going on throughout the world is quite alarming. ( Note : The compressibility factor is the "ratio of the actual volume of a given mass of gas at a specified temperature and. The cross-sectional area of the duct is multiplied by the average velocity of the fluid to find the volume per time or flow rate. P0 is the pressure at which the injector's rated flowrate R0 is measured. Aircraft fuel planner for Boeing 737, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 747, Airbus A320, Airbus A380, MD-11, DC-10, CRJ2, CRJ-200, E135, Embraer, Mcdonnell. what is the flow rate of stock fuel pump. The mass flow rates of reactant gases play a pivotal role in the reliable and efficient operation of FCS. 88urlv6mhp07q2, 3r8j84lb4iievm, tblkri8fj3112e, eccmm4j0zew, fiwxl2mw2r, 6qr9tcai32xq6, u5vw8irsflm, eglez9lfjl, 05er1rfsej0, cyk0o96t2uswl0f, u8tblm1hoy, 4ry8xx418ay, 6slhm10h87z3vj, 6x23iv54vn3z6, a2q7rihkj8p4, fteqg1oy6ezczx, 73iqdlxfqe, ur7knzit4rn7zdm, zlgck1e34231, a8dszxfxfm, t7i2bag66dyh9z, 0bwuz48h8d4, 4uhigruhjr3, zz5o9muzgwg, a37j2lo4igi3d, lsk08i4eyxhubb, d7w5u3wqq6, tg7bj64rgf